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Crypto and Blockchain Glossary

Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

Account Abstraction
A feature of Ethereum that allows for the creation of a single, unified account for multiple contract addresses.
Address (Wallet)
A string of letters and numbers used to send and receive cryptocurrency on a blockchain network.
Airdrop
The distribution of a cryptocurrency to a large number of addresses for free, often as a marketing strategy or to encourage adoption.
Algo-Trading (Algorithmic Trading)
The use of computer programs and algorithms to execute trades on financial markets.
Algorithmic Stablecoin
A type of stablecoin that uses algorithms to maintain its value relative to a fiat currency.
All-Time-High (ATH)
The highest price ever reached by a cryptocurrency.
All-Time-Low (ATL)
The lowest price ever reached by a cryptocurrency.
Altcoin
Any cryptocurrency other than Bitcoin.
aNFT (Autonomous NFT)
A type of non-fungible token that can perform actions on a blockchain network without the need for external input.
Annual Percentage Rate (APR)
A standardized measure of the cost of credit, expressed as a yearly rate.
Annual Percentage Yield (APY)
A measure of the total return on an investment, taking into account the interest rate and the frequency of compounding.
Anti-Money Laundering (AML)
Laws and regulations designed to prevent the illegal use of financial systems for money laundering.
Antitrust Law
Laws that aim to prevent monopolies and promote competition in the marketplace.
API
An application programming interface, a set of protocols and tools for building software and applications.
Arbitrage
The simultaneous buying and selling of an asset in different markets in order to profit from the price difference.
Asset
A financial or physical item that has value and can be traded.
Asset-Backed Tokens
Cryptocurrency tokens that are backed by a physical or financial asset.
Atomic Swap
A type of smart contract that allows for the exchange of one cryptocurrency for another without the need for a centralized intermediary.
Audit
A review of financial or operational systems to ensure they are accurate and comply with regulations or other requirements.
Authentication
The process of verifying the identity of a user or system.
Automated Market Maker (AMM)
A type of smart contract that uses algorithms to determine the price of assets in a decentralized market.
Austrian Economics
A school of economic thought that emphasizes the importance of individual choice and freedom in economic decisions.

B

Bag
A term used to describe a large amount of a specific cryptocurrency, typically used in the context of holding a significant quantity of an asset that is not performing well in the market.
Bagholder
A person who holds a large quantity of a specific cryptocurrency that is not performing well in the market.
Bail-in
A financial rescue mechanism in which a bank's creditors, including depositors, are forced to bear some of the burden of a bank's recovery by having a portion of their debt converted into equity.
Bank for International Settlements (BIS)
An international organization that promotes international monetary and financial cooperation and serves as a bank for central banks.
Bank Run
A situation in which a large number of bank customers withdraw their deposits simultaneously, typically because they believe the bank is, or might become, insolvent.
Banking Secrecy Act (BSA)
A law that requires financial institutions to maintain records and file reports that are intended to prevent money laundering and other financial crimes.
Bear Market
A market characterized by falling prices, typically associated with investors' increased pessimism.
BEP-2 (Binance Chain Tokenization Standard)
A token standard used on the Binance Chain blockchain, allowing for the creation of tokens that are compatible with Binance's ecosystem.
BEP-20
A token standard used on the Binance Smart Chain blockchain, similar to the Ethereum ERC-20 standard.
BEP-721
A token standard used on the Binance Smart Chain blockchain for non-fungible tokens (NFTs).
BEP-95 (Bruno Hard Fork Upgrade)
An upgrade to the Binance Smart Chain protocol that improved the security and performance of the blockchain.
Bitcoin ATM (BTM)
A machine that allows individuals to buy or sell bitcoin for cash.
Bitcoin Cash
A fork of the Bitcoin blockchain that increased the block size limit to 8MB, allowing for faster and cheaper transactions.
Bitcoin DApps
Decentralized applications built on the Bitcoin blockchain.
Bitcoin Dominance (BTCD)
A metric that measures the percentage of the total cryptocurrency market capitalization that is held by Bitcoin.
Bitcoin Improvement Proposal (BIP)
A proposal for improving the Bitcoin protocol, submitted by community members for review and potential implementation.
Bitcoin Misery Index (BMI)
A metric that aims to measure the level of "misery" experienced by Bitcoin investors by taking into account volatility, price, and volume.
Bitcoin NFTs
Non-fungible tokens built on the Bitcoin blockchain.
Block
A collection of transactions on a blockchain network that are grouped together and added to the blockchain in a linear, chronological order.
Block Explorer
A tool that allows users to view, search, and navigate through the transaction history of a blockchain.
Block Header
The first part of a block that contains information about the block, such as the previous block's hash, the timestamp, and the mining difficulty.
Block Height
The number of blocks that have been mined and added to the blockchain prior to a specific block.
Block Reward
The amount of cryptocurrency or token that is awarded to a miner or validator for adding a block to the blockchain.
Block Size
The amount of data that can be stored in a block on a blockchain.
Block Time
The amount of time it takes for a new block to be added to a blockchain.
Blockchain
A decentralized and distributed digital ledger that records all transactions on a network.
Blockchain Explorer
A tool that allows users to view and search the transaction history of a blockchain.
Blockchain Transmission Protocol (BTP)
A protocol that enables the transfer of blockchain data between different networks.
Blockchain Trilemma
The trade-off between scalability, security, and decentralization in blockchain networks.
Bridges
A mechanism that allows assets to be moved between different blockchain networks.
Brute Force Attack (BFA)
An attack in which an attacker repeatedly tries different combinations of characters in order to gain unauthorized access to a system.
Bull Market
A market condition in which prices are rising or are expected to rise.
Burn
The process of destroying or removing tokens from circulation, typically by sending them to an unspendable address.

C

Capital
Capital refers to the amount of money or assets that a company or individual has available to invest or use in business operations.
Censorship
Censorship is the suppression or prohibition of any parts of books, films, news, etc. that are considered obscene, politically unacceptable, or a threat to security.
Censorship Resistance
Censorship resistance refers to the ability of a network or system to remain functional and accessible despite attempts to censor or block it.
Central Bank
A central bank is a government or quasi-government institution that manages a country's monetary policy and issues currency.
Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC)
Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC) is a digital version of a country's fiat currency, issued and controlled by the central bank.
Centralized
Centralized refers to a system or organization in which power or control is concentrated in a single central authority or location.
Centralized Exchange (CEX)
A centralized exchange is a platform that allows users to buy, sell, and trade cryptocurrencies, but which is controlled and operated by a central authority.
Chain Reorganization
Chain reorganization refers to a change in the order of blocks in a blockchain, which can occur as a result of a fork or other network event.
Chain Split
A chain split is a situation in which a blockchain splits into two separate chains, each with its own set of blocks and transactions.
Circulating Supply
Circulating supply refers to the amount of a cryptocurrency that is currently available for trading on the open market.
Client
A client is a software program that connects to a server and requests services from it.
Coin
A coin is a digital currency that uses blockchain technology to record and verify transactions.
Coin Mixer
A coin mixer is a service that can be used to mix or shuffle different coins together in order to make it more difficult to trace their origin.
Cold Storage
A way of storing digital assets offline, typically on a hardware device such as a USB drive or a specialized hardware wallet, in order to protect them from hacking or other forms of digital theft.
Collateral
Assets that are put up as collateral for a loan or other financial transaction. In the context of blockchain and cryptocurrency, collateral typically refers to digital assets that are used to secure loans or other financial transactions on decentralized platforms.
Confirmation
The process by which a transaction on a blockchain network is verified and added to the blockchain. Confirmations are an important security feature of blockchain networks, as they ensure that a transaction cannot be reversed or tampered with once it has been added to the blockchain.
Consensus
The process by which all participants in a blockchain network agree on the state of the blockchain and the order of transactions. Consensus mechanisms vary depending on the specific blockchain, but they typically involve a combination of cryptography and incentives to ensure that all participants are working towards the same goal.
Core Wallet
A software program that is used to store and manage digital assets. Core wallets are typically full-featured and offer a wide range of functionality, such as the ability to send and receive transactions, view transaction history, and manage private keys.
Cross-Chain
The ability for digital assets to be transferred between different blockchain networks. This is typically achieved through the use of atomic swaps or other forms of cross-chain communication.
Crypto Debit Card
A physical or virtual debit card that can be used to spend cryptocurrency at merchants that accept it. Crypto debit cards are typically linked to a user's crypto wallet and allow users to easily spend their digital assets in the real world.
Cryptocurrency
A digital or virtual currency that uses cryptography for security. Cryptocurrencies are decentralized and typically operate on a blockchain network.
Cryptographic Hash Function
A mathematical function that takes an input (or "message") and returns a fixed-size string of characters, which is typically unique to the input. Hash functions are an important component of many cryptographic systems, including blockchain networks.
Cryptography
The practice of securing communications and information through the use of mathematical algorithms. Cryptography is a fundamental component of many blockchain networks and is used to secure transactions and protect against hacking and other forms of digital theft.
CryptoPunks
One of the first non-fungible tokens (NFTs) created on the Ethereum blockchain. CryptoPunks are small, 8x8 pixel art images that are each unique and can be bought, sold, and traded on the blockchain.
Custodial
Describing a service or platform that holds and manages the private keys for its users' digital assets. Custodial services are typically centralized and can include exchanges, wallets, and other platforms that handle digital assets on behalf of their users.
Cypherpunk
An individual or group that advocates for the use of cryptography and other forms of digital privacy in order to protect against government surveillance and other forms of intrusion. The term "cypherpunk" was first used in the 1990s to describe a group of privacy-minded individuals who were interested in the potential of encryption.

D

Dark Web
The dark web is a part of the internet that is not indexed by search engines and is only accessible using specialized software such as Tor. It is often associated with illegal activities and is a popular place for buying and selling illegal goods and services.
Decentralization
Decentralization refers to the distribution of power and decision-making authority away from a central authority or location. In the context of blockchain and cryptocurrency, decentralization refers to the distribution of power and control among a network of users rather than a central authority.
Decentralized Application (DApp)
A decentralized application (DApp) is an application that runs on a decentralized network and is powered by smart contracts. DApps are not controlled by any single entity and are instead maintained by a community of users.
Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAO)
A decentralized autonomous organization (DAO) is a digital organization that is run by its members through smart contracts. DAOs are not controlled by any central authority and are instead governed by their members through a set of rules encoded in smart contracts.
Decentralized Exchange (DEX)
A decentralized exchange (DEX) is a type of cryptocurrency exchange that allows users to trade cryptocurrencies without the need for a central authority. DEXs are typically built on top of blockchain networks and use smart contracts to facilitate trades.
Decentralized Governance
Decentralized governance refers to the process of making decisions in a decentralized network. In the context of blockchain and cryptocurrency, decentralized governance refers to the process of making decisions about the protocol or network through voting or other decentralized mechanisms.
DeFi
DeFi, short for Decentralized Finance, refers to a new financial system that operates on blockchain technology and smart contracts. DeFi platforms allow users to access financial services such as lending, borrowing, and trading without the need for a centralized intermediary.
Delayed Proof of Work (dPoW)
Delayed Proof of Work (dPoW) is a consensus mechanism that combines the Proof of Work (PoW) and Proof of Stake (PoS) algorithms. It aims to improve the security of PoS by adding a layer of PoW security.
Delegated Proof-of-Stake (dPOS)
Delegated Proof-of-Stake (dPOS) is a consensus mechanism that allows users to delegate their voting power to other users. This allows for a more efficient and scalable consensus mechanism than traditional PoS.
Denial-of-Service (DoS) Attack
A denial-of-service (DoS) attack is an attack on a computer system or network that causes it to be unavailable to its intended users. In the context of blockchain and cryptocurrency, a DoS attack can be used to disrupt the operation of a network or a specific node on a network.
Diamond Hands
Diamond hands is a term used to describe individuals who hold on to their cryptocurrency investments despite market volatility and downturns. It is seen as a symbol of strong conviction and belief in the long-term potential of the asset.
Digital Asset
A digital asset is a digital representation of value that can be traded or exchanged. In the context of blockchain and cryptocurrency, digital assets refer to cryptocurrencies and other digital tokens that are stored and traded on blockchain networks.
Digital Signature
A digital signature is a mathematical mechanism that is used to verify the authenticity of a digital message or document. In the context of blockchain and cryptocurrency, digital signatures are used to verify the authenticity of transactions and ensure that they are valid.

E

Encryption
The process of converting plain text into a code to protect the data from unauthorized access or tampering. Encryption is used to secure various types of data, including financial transactions and personal information.
ERC-1155
A standard for creating smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain that allows for the creation of tokens that can represent multiple types of assets, such as in-game items, collectibles, and other digital assets.
ERC-20
A standard for creating tokens on the Ethereum blockchain. ERC-20 tokens are fungible, meaning they are interchangeable and have the same value. They are used to represent various types of assets, such as digital currencies, utility tokens, and security tokens.
ERC-223
A standard for creating tokens on the Ethereum blockchain that aims to improve on the ERC-20 standard by reducing the potential for errors and improving transaction efficiency.
ERC-721
ERC-721 is a type of Ethereum token standard that defines a set of rules for creating and managing non-fungible tokens (NFTs) on the Ethereum blockchain. NFTs are unique digital assets that cannot be replicated or replaced, and ERC-721 tokens are used to represent these assets.
ERC-777
ERC-777 is an Ethereum token standard that builds upon the ERC-20 standard and provides additional functionality, such as the ability to cancel transactions and the ability to handle multiple tokens in a single transaction.
ERC-827
ERC-827 is an Ethereum token standard that extends the ERC-20 standard to include the ability to send data alongside token transactions. This allows for the creation of tokens with more complex functionality, such as the ability to interact with smart contracts.
ERC-884
ERC-884 is an Ethereum token standard that allows for the creation of tokens that can be divided into smaller units, similar to shares of stock. This allows for the creation of tokens that can be traded on a per-unit basis and can be used to represent fractional ownership in a project or asset.
ERC-948
ERC-948 is an Ethereum token standard that allows for the creation of tokens that can be used to vote on proposals within a decentralized autonomous organization (DAO). This allows for the creation of tokens that can be used for decentralized governance.
Ethereum
A decentralized, open-source blockchain platform that enables the development of smart contracts and decentralized applications (DApps). It was first proposed in 2013 by Vitalik Buterin, and its native cryptocurrency is called Ether (ETH).
Ethereum Classic
A version of Ethereum that was created as a result of a hard fork in 2016. It was created by a group of developers who believed in the immutability of the blockchain and did not agree with the decision to reverse the DAO hack. Ethereum Classic has its own distinct blockchain and cryptocurrency (ETC).
Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM)
The Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) is the software that runs on every node in the Ethereum network and executes smart contracts. It is responsible for the execution of all transactions on the Ethereum blockchain.
Exchange
An exchange is a platform where users can buy and sell cryptocurrency assets. There are centralized exchanges where users deposit their assets and trade with the exchange as counterparty and decentralized exchanges where users trade directly with each other without intermediaries.

F

Faucet
A website or application that gives away small amounts of cryptocurrency to users, often in exchange for completing simple tasks or captcha challenges. Faucets are often used to promote the adoption and use of a particular cryptocurrency.
Fiat Money
Traditional government-issued currency, such as the US dollar or euro. Fiat money is not backed by a physical commodity, but by the government that issues it.
Fork
A split in a blockchain network, resulting in the creation of two separate versions of the blockchain. There are two types of forks: a soft fork and a hard fork. A soft fork is a backwards-compatible update to a blockchain's protocol, while a hard fork is a change to the protocol that creates a separate, incompatible version of the blockchain.
FOMO (Fear Of Missing Out)
The feeling of anxiety or pressure to join in on a particular investment or trend, often driven by the fear of missing out on potential gains.
Frictionless
A term used to describe a system or process that is smooth and easy to use, with minimal obstacles or barriers to entry.

G

Gas
A unit of measurement used in the Ethereum network to calculate the amount of computational effort required to perform a specific action on the blockchain, such as executing a smart contract. Gas is paid in Ether (ETH) to the miner who processes the action.
Gas Limit
The maximum amount of gas that can be used in a single transaction on the Ethereum network.
Gas Price
The amount of Ether (ETH) that must be paid per unit of gas in a transaction on the Ethereum network.
Genesis Block
The first block in a blockchain network. It is the foundation block and the starting point of the chain.

H

Hard Cap
The maximum amount of funds that can be raised during an Initial Coin Offering (ICO) or token sale.
Hard Fork
A split in a blockchain network, resulting in the creation of two separate versions of the blockchain. A hard fork is a change to the protocol that creates a separate, incompatible version of the blockchain.
Hash
A mathematical function that takes an input (or "message") and returns a fixed-size string of characters, which is unique to the input. Hashes are used in blockchain technology to secure the integrity of data and to link blocks in the blockchain.
Hashrate
The speed at which a mining device or pool is able to perform the hash function. It is measured in hashes per second (H/s).
HODL
A misspelling of the word "hold," referring to the strategy of buying and holding a cryptocurrency, rather than actively trading it.
Hot Wallet
A digital wallet that is connected to the internet and is used to store small amounts of cryptocurrency for immediate use or trading.
Hybrid PoS/PoW
A consensus mechanism that combines the Proof-of-Work (PoW) and Proof-of-Stake (PoS) algorithms. It uses PoW to secure the network and PoS to reach consensus on the blockchain's state.

I

Immutable
A term used to describe the unchangeable nature of data stored on a blockchain. Once data is recorded on a blockchain, it cannot be altered or deleted, making the blockchain a secure and transparent system for storing and verifying data. This property is often used to ensure the integrity of transactions, smart contracts, and other information stored on the blockchain.
Initial Coin Offering (ICO)
A fundraising method used by companies and projects in the cryptocurrency and blockchain space to raise capital for their ventures. In an ICO, investors are given tokens or coins in exchange for their investment, which can then be used on the company or project's platform or traded on cryptocurrency exchanges.
Initial Token Offering (ITO)
Similar to an ICO, an ITO is a fundraising method in which a company or project issues tokens in exchange for investment. The main difference between an ICO and ITO is that the latter typically has more regulatory compliance and investor protections in place.
Interoperability
The ability of different blockchain networks or platforms to communicate and interact with one another. Interoperability allows for the transfer of assets and data across different blockchains, creating a more connected and efficient ecosystem.
Interoperable Token
A type of token that can be used across different blockchain platforms and networks. Interoperable tokens can be transferred and exchanged between different blockchain systems, allowing for greater flexibility and functionality.

J

JOMO (Joy of Missing Out)
A phenomenon in the crypto community where an individual finds contentment in not participating in the hype of a particular coin or event, instead choosing to focus on their own investments or portfolio.

K

KYC (Know Your Customer)
A process in which businesses verify the identity of their clients and assess potential risks of illegal intentions for financial transactions.

L

Layer-2
Ledger
A digital or physical record of financial transactions. In the context of cryptocurrency, a ledger refers to the record of all transactions on a blockchain network.
Leverage
The use of borrowed funds to increase potential returns on an investment, but also increasing potential losses.
Lightning Network
A second-layer solution for the scalability of Bitcoin and other blockchain networks, allowing for faster and cheaper transactions by setting up off-chain payment channels between participating nodes.
Liquidity
The ability for an asset to be easily bought or sold on the market without significantly affecting its price.
Liquidity Mining
A mechanism in which users can earn rewards for providing liquidity to a particular market or trading pair on a decentralized exchange (DEX).
Liquidity Provider (LP)
An individual or entity that provides liquidity to a particular market or trading pair on a decentralized exchange (DEX) in exchange for trading fees and potential appreciation of the assets they have staked.
Long
A position in which an investor expects the price of an asset to increase, and thus profits by buying low and selling high.

M

Mempool
The mempool (memory pool) is a holding area for transactions that have been verified by nodes on the blockchain network but have not yet been included in a block. Transactions are temporarily stored in the mempool before they are mined and included in a block.
Mining
Mining is the process of validating transactions on a blockchain network and adding them to the blockchain's ledger. Miners use specialized hardware to solve complex mathematical problems in order to validate transactions and add them to the blockchain. In return for their efforts, miners are rewarded with newly created coins and transaction fees.
Mining Pool
A mining pool is a group of miners who combine their computational power to increase their chances of finding a block and receiving the block reward. By pooling their resources, miners are able to find blocks more frequently and earn more rewards.
Multisig
Multisig, short for multi-signature, is a type of wallet that requires multiple signatures or approvals before a transaction can be executed. This added security measure can help protect against unauthorized transactions and ensure that funds are only spent with the consent of multiple parties.

N

Node
A node is a device or computer that is connected to a blockchain network and participates in the process of validating transactions and adding them to the blockchain. Nodes can be full nodes, which store a copy of the entire blockchain, or light nodes, which only store a subset of the blockchain data.
Non-Fungible Token (NFT)
A non-fungible token, or NFT, is a type of digital asset that represents ownership of a unique item or piece of content, such as a digital artwork or collectible. Unlike fungible tokens like Bitcoin or Ethereum, NFTs cannot be exchanged for an identical asset or token.
NFT Marketplaces
NFT marketplaces are online platforms where users can buy and sell non-fungible tokens. These marketplaces use blockchain technology to securely and transparently record the ownership and transfer of NFTs. Some popular NFT marketplaces include OpenSea, Rarible, and SuperRare.

O

Off-chain
Refers to transactions or activities that take place outside of the blockchain. They are not recorded on the blockchain and are not visible to the public.
Oracle
A third-party service that provides external data to smart contracts on the blockchain. Oracles are used to access information from outside sources, such as prices, weather, or sports scores, that can be used to trigger smart contract execution.

P

Panic Selling
A term used to describe when investors sell their assets in a panic, often due to market conditions or news.
Paper Wallet
A physical representation of a wallet address and private key, usually in the form of a printout or QR code. Paper wallets can be used to store cryptocurrencies offline for added security.
Parent Chain
A blockchain that is used as the foundation for other blockchains, often referred to as child chains.
Peer-to-Peer (P2P)
A network of individuals or entities that interact directly with each other, without the need for intermediaries. In the context of cryptocurrency, P2P networks are used for transactions and the sharing of data and resources.
Permissioned Blockchain
A blockchain that is restricted and controlled by a central authority or group of authorities. Transactions and access to the blockchain are only allowed for approved users or nodes.
Pluggable consensus
A term used to describe the ability to change the consensus algorithm used by a blockchain network, without the need for a hard fork.
PoA (Proof of Authority)
A consensus mechanism that uses a set of designated nodes, or validators, to validate transactions and add new blocks to the blockchain.
PoB (Proof of Burn)
A consensus mechanism that requires users to send a specific amount of their cryptocurrency to an unspendable address, effectively "burning" it, in order to participate in the network and validate transactions.

Q

Quantum Computing
A type of computing that uses quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform operations on data.

R

Real-time Gross Settlement (RTGS)
A system for the instantaneous transfer of funds, which enables the transfer of money in real-time and gross settlement, which means that the transfer of money is settled as soon as it is processed.
Reverse Indicator
A technical indicator that is used to identify trend reversals in financial markets.
Reverse ICO
A type of initial coin offering in which an established company issues a new cryptocurrency in exchange for an existing one.
Risk Management
The process of identifying, assessing, and prioritizing risks and developing strategies to manage those risks.
ROI (Return on Investment)
A measure of the profitability of an investment, typically expressed as a percentage of the initial investment.
Rounding Bottom
A chart pattern that occurs when the price of a security forms a U-shape, with a low in the middle and higher lows on either side.
Rug Pull
A scam in which a project's creators exit the project after raising funds, causing the price of the project's token to crash.
Runners
Traders or investors who buy or sell a large number of tokens in a short period of time, usually with the intention of manipulating the market.

S

Satoshi
The smallest unit of a Bitcoin, named after the pseudonym of the creator of Bitcoin, Satoshi Nakamoto.
Satoshi Nakamoto
The pseudonym used by the author (or authors) of the Bitcoin whitepaper.
Scalability
The ability of a system to handle an increasing number of transactions or users without experiencing a decrease in performance.
Secondary Market
A market where securities are bought and sold after they have been initially offered to the public in an primary market.
Security Token
A type of digital asset that represents a financial security, such as a stock or bond, and is subject to federal securities regulations.
Self-Regulatory Organization (SRO)
An organization that has the power to create and enforce rules and regulations for its members.
Sell Wall
A large sell order that is placed on a cryptocurrency exchange at a specific price, often used to manipulate the market.
Sharding
A method of dividing a database into smaller, more manageable pieces called shards, which can be stored on different servers.
Shitcoin
A term used to describe a cryptocurrency that has little to no value or potential.
Sidechain
A separate blockchain that is attached to a primary blockchain, allowing for the transfer of assets between the two chains.
Signature
A digital code that is used to verify the authenticity of a transaction or message.
Smart Contract
A type of digital contract that is self-executing and can automatically enforce the terms of the agreement.
Soft Fork
A change to the blockchain protocol that is backward-compatible, meaning that older versions of the software can still communicate with the new version.
Solidity
The programming language used to write smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain.
Stablecoin
A type of cryptocurrency that is pegged to the value of a fiat currency or other asset, such as gold or oil.
Stagflation
A combination of stagnant economic growth and high inflation.
State Block
In the context of a blockchain, a state block refers to the current state of the network or the blockchain. It includes information such as the current balance of all accounts, the current smart contract code, and any other relevant data.

T

Token
In the context of blockchain and cryptocurrency, a token is a digital asset that represents a specific value or utility. Tokens can be used for a variety of purposes, such as representing ownership in a company, access to a service, or as a means of exchange.
Transaction
In the context of blockchain and cryptocurrency, a transaction refers to the transfer of digital assets from one address to another. Transactions are recorded on the blockchain and are used to update the state of the network.
Transaction Fee
A fee charged for processing a transaction on the blockchain. This fee is paid to the miner or node that confirms and processes the transaction.
Trustless
Trustless refers to a system or network that does not rely on any central authority or intermediary for its operation or security. Transactions and interactions on a trustless network are based on mathematical algorithms and cryptographic protocols.
Two-Factor Authentication (2FA)
An additional layer of security that requires users to provide two forms of identification before they can access their accounts or complete transactions. This can include a password and a fingerprint, a code sent to a phone, or a code generated by a security token.
Unconfirmed Transaction
A transaction that has been broadcast to the network but has not yet been confirmed and added to a block.
Unspent Transaction Output (UTXO)
UTXO refers to the unspent output of a transaction. UTXOs can be used as inputs for new transactions and are the basis for the Bitcoin transaction model.

W

Wallet
A software program or hardware device that stores and manages digital assets such as cryptocurrencies. Wallets can be used to send and receive transactions, view balances, and access other features of the blockchain.
Web3
Web3 refers to the third generation of the World Wide Web, characterized by the use of decentralized technologies such as blockchain and smart contracts to build decentralized applications (dApps) and decentralized autonomous organizations (DAOs). It is also known as "the decentralized web" and aims to provide users with more control over their data, security, and online interactions. Web3 technologies are based on the principles of decentralization, transparency, and immutability, with the goal of creating a more open and equitable online ecosystem.
Whitepaper
A detailed document that provides information about a project, its goals, and its technical specifications. Whitepapers are often used in the context of initial coin offerings (ICOs) to provide potential investors with detailed information about the project and its underlying technology.

Y

Yield
Yield refers to the return on investment for a particular asset, such as a bond or a cryptocurrency. It can be expressed as an annual percentage rate or an annual percentage yield.

Z

Zero-Knowledge Proof
Zero-knowledge proof is a method of proving the authenticity of a statement without revealing any additional information. This technique can be used to enhance privacy and security in blockchain transactions.
ZK Roll-ups
A layer 2 scaling solution that bundles multiple off-chain transactions into a single on-chain transaction, reducing the data stored on the blockchain and increasing its throughput.
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